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Sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben in environmental samples: statistically important parameters determining kinetics, by-products and pathways

Papadopoulos Costas, Frontistis Zacharias, Antonopoulou Maria, Venieri Danai, Konstantinou, Ioannis K, Mantzavinos Dionysis

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URI: http://purl.tuc.gr/dl/dias/87AC87DF-6EBB-4A8F-8D6A-F916E575BE0F
Έτος 2016
Τύπος Δημοσίευση σε Περιοδικό με Κριτές
Άδεια Χρήσης
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Εμφανίζεται στις Συλλογές

Περίληψη

The sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was investigated. Experiments were conducted at constant ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz and liquid bulk temperature of 30 °C in the following range of experimental conditions: EP concentration 250-1250 μg/L, ultrasound (US) density 20-60 W/L, reaction time up to 120 min, initial pH 3-8 and sodium persulfate 0-100 mg/L, either in ultrapure water or secondary treated wastewater. A factorial design methodology was adopted to elucidate the statistically important effects and their interactions and a full empirical model comprising seventeen terms was originally developed. Omitting several terms of lower significance, a reduced model that can reliably simulate the process was finally proposed; this includes EP concentration, reaction time, power density and initial pH, as well as the interactions (EP concentration) × (US density), (EP concentration) × (pHo) and (EP concentration) × (time). Experiments at an increased EP concentration of 3.5 mg/L were also performed to identify degradation by-products. LC-TOF-MS analysis revealed that EP sonochemical degradation occurs through dealkylation of the ethyl chain to form methyl paraben, while successive hydroxylation of the aromatic ring yields 4-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. By-products are less toxic to bacterium V. fischeri than the parent compound.

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