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Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe: technology development trends

Komnitsas Konstantinos, Spooren Jeroen, Binnemans, Koen, Björkmalm Johanna, Breemersch Koen, Dams Yoko, Folens Karel , González Moya, María, Horckmans Liesbeth, Kurylak, Witold, Lopez Maria, Mäkinen Jarno, Onisei Silviana, Oorts, Koen, Peys Arne, Pietek Grzegorz, Pontikes, Yiannis, Snellings, Ruben, Kinnunen Päivi, Tripiana Maria, Varia Jeet, Willquist Karin, Yurramendi, Lourdes

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Extent1,78 megabytesen
Extent18 pagesen
TitleNear-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe: technology development trendsen
CreatorKomnitsas Konstantinosen
CreatorΚομνιτσας Κωνσταντινοςel
CreatorSpooren Jeroenen
CreatorBinnemans, Koenen
CreatorBjörkmalm Johannaen
CreatorBreemersch Koenen
CreatorDams Yokoen
CreatorFolens Karel en
CreatorGonzález Moya, Maríaen
CreatorHorckmans Liesbethen
CreatorKurylak, Witolden
CreatorLopez Mariaen
CreatorMäkinen Jarnoen
CreatorOnisei Silvianaen
CreatorOorts, Koenen
CreatorPeys Arneen
CreatorPietek Grzegorzen
CreatorPontikes, Yiannisen
CreatorSnellings, Rubenen
CreatorKinnunen Päivien
CreatorTripiana Mariaen
CreatorVaria Jeeten
CreatorWillquist Karinen
CreatorYurramendi, Lourdesen
Content SummaryWith an increasing number of low-grade primary ores starting to be cost-effectively mined, we are at the verge of mining a myriad of low-grade primary and secondary mineral materials. At the same time, mining practices and mineral waste recycling are both evolving towards sustainable near-zero-waste processing of low-grade resources within a circular economy that requires a shift in business models, policies and improvements in process technologies. This review discusses the evolution towards low-grade primary ore and secondary raw material mining that will allow for sufficient supply of critical raw materials as well as base metals. Seven low-grade ores, including primary (Greek and Polish laterites) and secondary (fayalitic slags, jarosite and goethite sludges, zinc rich waste treatment sludge and chromium-rich neutralisation sludge) raw materials are discussed as typical examples for Europe. In order to treat diverse and complex low-grade ores efficiently, the use of a new metallurgical systems toolbox is proposed, which is populated with existing and innovative unit operations: (i) mineral processing, (ii) metal extraction, (iii) metal recovery and (iv) matrix valorisation. Several promising novel techniques are under development for these four unit-operations. From an economical and environmental point of view, such processes must be fitted into new (circular) business models, whereby impacts and costs are divided over the entire value chain. Currently, low-grade secondary raw material processing is only economic and environmentally beneficial when the mineral residues can be valorised and landfill costs are avoided and/or incentives for waste processing can be taken into account.en
Type of ItemΑνασκόπησηel
Type of ItemReviewen
Date of Item2020-06-15-
Date of Publication2020-
SubjectProcessing of low grade resourcesen
SubjectCircular economyen
SubjectLow-grade oresen
SubjectCritical raw materialsen
Bibliographic CitationJ. Spooren, K. Binnemans, J. Björkmalm, K. Breemersch, Y. Dams, K. Folens, M. González-Moya, L. Horckmans, K. Komnitsas, W. Kurylak, M. Lopez, J. Mäkinen, S. Onisei, K. Oorts, A. Peys, G. Pietek, Y. Pontikes, R. Snellings, M. Tripiana, J. Varia, K. Willquist, L. Yurramendik and P. Kinnunen, "Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe: technology development trends," Resour. Conserv. Recycl., vol. 160, Sep. 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104919en

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