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Ενισχυμένη βιοδιέγερση εγγενών θαλάσσιων μικροοργανισμών με τη χρήση λιπόφιλων λιπασμάτων σε συνδυασμό με επιφανειοδραστικές βιολογικές ουσίες για αποικοδόμηση πετρελαιοκηλίδων

Nikolopoulou Maria

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Year 2005
Type of Item Μεταπτυχιακή Διατριβή
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In this study the effectiveness of certain nutrients and bioremediation agents on the bioremediation of oil spills was examined.Bioremediation of crude oil hydrocarbons is achieved by the application of certain amounts of nutrients (sources of nitrogen and phosphorous). These nutrients stimulate the indigenous microorganisms which are located at the interface of water-crude oil. The supply of these two essential elements as water-soluble salts of nitrogen and phosphorous presents several problems. These include the rapid dilution of the salts in the large volumes of polluted water and the increase in concentration of mobile nitrogen which creates further environmental problems.To overcome these problems the use of hydrophobic sources of nitrogen (uric acid) and phosphorous (lecithin) acting at the interface of water-crude oil is investigated. Their activity is enhanced by the use of biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are heterogeneous group of surface active molecules produced by microorganisms, which can disperse oil spills and increase the interface of water-crude oil thus permit microorganisms to grow on a greater area. Biosurfactants are more preferable than chemical dispersants because they are less toxic and more easily biodegradable. The effects of the lipophilic fertilizers with or without biosurfactants on the degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons are examined. These effects are also compared with the degradation that is achieved by commercial bioremediation agents like S-200.The method which has been used for the evaluation of these bioremediation agents is based on a modified bioremediation agent effectiveness testing protocol by EPA (40 CFR Ch. I, Pt 300, App. C). This protocol was designed to determine a product’s ability to biodegrade oil by quantifying changes in the oil composition resulting from biodegradation. The protocol tests for microbial activity by Most Probable Number (MPN) determination and quantifies the disappearance of saturated hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by GC-MS analysis.

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