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Exposure and effects on human health in landfill sites from ambient particulate matter

Chalvatzaki Eleftheria

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URI: http://purl.tuc.gr/dl/dias/DFCC29E7-F6D7-4144-9053-055AC8BB5272
Year 2016
Type of Item Doctoral Dissertation
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Summary

The human exposure to particulate matter is a subject of increasing scientific interest due to the effects of particulate matter on human health. The high concentrations of particulate matter observed in landfills and the adverse health effects associated with high particulate matter concentrations make the study of personal exposure and consequent dose from particulate matter present in landfill sites necessary. The current study focus of workers in the waste management facility of the Prefecture of Chania. The waste management facility of the Prefecture of Chania consists of the landfill and the Mechanical Recycling and Composting Plant. For the calculation of the internal particle dose in the human body were performed particle mass concentrations measurements, particle mass size distributions measurements and chemical analyzes for the determination of the metal content in the particulate matter. In addition, indoor and outdoor particulate matter emission rates were estimated. Natural process (wind erosion) and anthropogenic process (movement of refuse trucks and manual sorting of waste) were also examined. The study of the different activities in the waste management facility of the Prefecture of Chania and their influence on the air pollution were examined in the current work. In particular, the outdoor emission rates were used as input parameter to a dispersion model in order to calculate the outdoor particulate matter concentrations. The most important source of particulate matter in the outdoor waste management facility of the Prefecture of Chania is the resuspension of dust due to refuse truck movement on roads. In addition, particulate matter emissions generated by wind erosion of compost piles and landfill cover.Particulate matter enters the human body mainly through the respiratory tract. The deposited particles in the respiratory tract transferred to the rest of the body. Simulation of the mechanisms through which the particulate matter entering the body, are deposited, accumulated and transferred to the rest of the body performed from dosimetry models. In the current study developed a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of particles in the human body. The ExDoM2 model consists of a revised respiratory tract deposition/clearance model (updated version of the ExDoM) and a pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The revised respiratory tract deposition/clearance model incorporating new particle clearance mechanisms in the respiratory tract and was used to calculate the deposited dose of particles in the respiratory tract, the retention of particles in the respiratory tract, the transport of particles to the oesophagus (gastrointestinal tract) and lymph nodes, and the absorption to blood. The PBPK model was used for the transport of metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) from the blood in the human body (e.g. liver, heart, kidneys, brain, gastrointestinal tract).The major difference in the ExDoM2 model developed in the current study compared to other models (e.g. ExDoM, MPPD) in the scientific literature is that it incorporates a PBPK module for specific metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) of particles. In addition, the respiratory tract deposition/clearance model of the ExDoM2 incorporating new particle clearance mechanisms in the respiratory tract based on the revised model of the ICRP and also allows the user to enter different particle size distribution measurements (per hour) for determining realistic human exposure at different microenvironments during the day.The input data for the model implementation were derived from field measurements in the waste management facility of the Prefecture of Chania. They were selected four categories of exposed individuals: (a) workers at the outdoor weighing facility, (b) workers at the indoor site of manual waste sorting (first shift), (c) workers at the indoor site of manual waste sorting (second shift) and (d) non-workers in the waste management facility of the Prefecture of Chania. The objective of using different exposure scenarios is to determine whether the particulate matter dose of workers in the waste management facility of the Prefecture of Chania is increased compared to that of the general population in the area.

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