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Environmental performance of photocatalytic materials for energy save

Papadaki Dimitra

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Year 2017
Type of Item Doctoral Dissertation
Bibliographic Citation Dimitra Papadaki, "Environmental performance of photocatalytic materials for energy save", Doctoral Dissertation, School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece, 2017
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The incorporation of nanoparticles in the building industry is a further step towards green, efficient smart buildings. These applications can be found in building matrices, coatings or insulating applications. Nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc (ZnO), and other oxides, can be used as photocatalytic products, antibacterial, self-cleaning and water or germ repellents. In the case of photocatalysis, these nanoparticles have been widely used for indoor air quality and urban air quality through their use inside building materials. The two nanomaterials, namely TiO2 and ZnO, are studied in this PhD thesis. Different synthesis parameters like Temperature, Power, doping, oxygen vacancies enhancement via ammonia exposure, are investigated for their role in the photocatalytic performance of the nanoparticles. It has been proved that higher temperature and power leads to higher crystallinity, surface area and porosity, leading to higher photocatalytic activity. A nanomaterial with higher surface area therefore is also environmental friendlier as a small increase in temperature or power may enhance its activity as a photocatalyst. Specifically increasing the temperature has a positive effect on the ZnO nanostructures environmental sustainability, with 150 oC and 220 oC having a ~10% and ~41% lower total environmental footprint, compared to 90 oC. Also increased power has lower environmental footprint. Particularly the total environmental footprint of 310 W and 710 W is ~18% and ~27% lower than using 110 W. Doping led to higher photocatalytic results also. Co doped ZnO showed a 10% photocatalytic behavior under visible light. In and Al doped TiO2 samples had a good photocatalytic response (90% and 60%) under UV. Nanoparticles inside calcareous filler cement and cement paint were studied and high photocatalytic activity was found at the calcareous filler incorporating TiO2, specifically 12% degradation of HCHO under UV irradiation at Mn doped TiO2. Moreover cement and cement paint appeared to have a big adsorption of pollutants with cement having the lowest pollution rates. Organic compounds were found in calcareous building material and this decreased dramatically the performance of P25 inside this BM matrix. Nonetheless the highest photocatalytic results (12%) are achieved under calcareous fillers incorporating TCM. Therefore in construction industry, the choice of the matrix that will incorporate the photocatalytic nanomaterial is a crucial step.

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