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Determination of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in plastics derived from electric and electronic wastes (WEEE)

Liarokapis Ioannis

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Year 2017
Type of Item Diploma Work
Bibliographic Citation Ioannis Liarokapis, "Determination of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in plastics derived from electric and electronic wastes (WEEE)", Diploma Work, Πολυτεχνείο Κρήτης:Σχολή Μηχανικών Περιβάλλοντος, Chania, Greece, 2017
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During the last decades, due to the continual improvements in technology, the lifespan of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) has been really shortened. As a consequence of the increasing market demands, order models are outdated each year leading to a rapid grown waste stream, also known as e- waste. Beyond from the large volume of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), concern arises about toxic substances associated with the e-waste, as it contains flame retardants (FRs) that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment. Review studies state that the release of FRs occurs during the processing and management methods applied in WEEE recycling units (e.g. during the application of thermal methods). According to the aforementioned, we can assume that the distinction and the classification of the heterogeneous WEEE plastics as well as the detection of FRs in e-waste stream, become a crucial matter. Several techniques have been developed for the semiquantative detection of the halogen content in e-scrap plastic. In this aspect, the thesis focused on the presence of tetrabromobisphenol A, as it is the most abundant brominated flame retardant that is used in EEE, in certain e-waste categories. Four different electric devices were examined and include microwaves, hoovers, irons and CD/DVD players represented three different categories of 2012/19/EC Directive, large household appliances, small household apppliances and consumer equipment.The experimental procedure included the samples’ collection, the necessary pretreatment and then the application of the extraction methods. Therefore, during experimental procedure, the extraction potential of the substance is examined by investigating the solvent solution in combination with the type of the polymer and the applied method for the extraction. Limitations, also, observed during the analytic technique for the quantification of TBBPA by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). According to the above, it was conducted that the most effective extraction was achieved by using microwave extraction with solvent mixture of isopropanol-hexane. In general, it was concluded that the detection of TBBPA in WEEE plastics depends on a) the polymeric matrix, b) the extraction solvent, c) the extraction method and most important d) the type of the e-waste plastic examined.

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