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Modeling the impact of carbon amendments on soil ecosystem functions using the 1D-ICZ model

Kotronakis Emmanouil, Giannakis Georgios, Nikolaidis Nikolaos, Rowe, Edwin C., Valstar, Johan R., Paranychianakis Nikolaos, Banwart, Steven A

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Year 2017
Type of Item Book Chapter
Bibliographic Citation M. Kotronakis, G. V. Giannakis, N. P. Nikolaidis, E. C. Rowe, J. D. Valstar, N. V. Paranychianakis and S. A. Banwart, "Modeling the impact of carbon amendments on soil ecosystem functions using the 1D-ICZ model" in Quantifying and Managing Soil Functions in Earth's Critical Zone Combining Experimentation and Mathematical Modelling, vol.142, Advances in Agronomy, S. A. Banwart and D. L. Sparks, Eds., Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2017, pp. 315-352. doi:10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.010
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In the next four decades, humanity needs to double food and energy production and increase the supply of clean water by over 50% while mitigating and adapting to climate change. A central element in the strategy of addressing these major environmental challenges is to maintain the central role of Earth's essential soil functions and related ecosystem services. Many soil functions are affected by soil structure in terms of particle aggregation and porosity. The objective of this work is to model soil structure and biomass dynamics, nutrients uptake, and yields using the 1D Integrated Critical Zone (1D-ICZ) model which is a mechanistic mathematical description of soil processes and functions. The 1D-ICZ model simulates the coupled processes that underpin major soil functions including water flow and storage, biomass production, carbon and nutrient sequestration, pollutant transformation, and supporting biological processes, and thus is capable of quantifying essential soil ecosystem services. The model was validated using data derived from a field experiment where tomato plants were grown using different treatments of commercial mineral fertilizers, compost, manure, and a 30% manure–70% compost amendment. Detailed data have been collected over four growing seasons on soil and soil solution chemistry, aggregate formation, and plant production. The model has been able to capture the biomass production, the temporal dynamics of the water-stable aggregate formation and the dynamics of carbon and nutrient sequestration in the different sizes aggregates as well as the variability of water filtration and transformation efficiency in the different amendment treatments. The model results demonstrate the value of applying computational simulation tools such as the 1D-ICZ model to test options for improved land management measures and to support sustainable land care practices.