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Ο ρόλος της οργανικής ουσίας στη δομή και στην ποιότητα του εδάφους

Kotronakis Emmanouil

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Year 2018
Type of Item Doctoral Dissertation
Bibliographic Citation Εμμανουήλ Κοτρωνάκης, "Ο ρόλος της οργανικής ουσίας στη δομή και στην ποιότητα του εδάφους", Διδακτορική Διατριβή, Σχολή Μηχανικών Περιβάλλοντος, Πολυτεχνείο Κρήτης, Χανιά, Ελλάς, 2018
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The agricultural production systems based exclusively on the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides aim to maximize agricultural production, without however considering the soil as an ecosystem. This agricultural practice has led to degradation of the environment and the ecosystem services that soil provides, such as food production, filtration and movement of water and nutrients, biodiversity and organic matter storage. Soil quality is directly linked to soil organic matter (SOM) and soil aggregate stability. The application of organic soil improvers for the replenishment of soil organic matter can make a significant contribution to halting the degradation of ecosystem services and to increase primary production. The aim of the dissertation is to study the changes in soil properties and the its services in the Critical Zone, following the application of organic substrates to an experimental field of tomato cultivation, that faces the risk of desertification (loss of organic soil), as a consequence of foreseeable climate change. The key issue is the emergence of a sustainable management of agricultural land in Greece, with the addition of organic substrates, combining increased agricultural yields with improved soil functions and environmental quality.This thesis presents a holistic and interdisciplinary approach to soil quality improvement, which combines field study with simulation. The study was carried out in two stages: a) the field experiment, where organic products such as compost from municipal solid waste (compost MSW), digested manure derived from sheep and goats, crop residues and weeds were applied to a tomato crop on a yearly basis and the changes in the physical and chemical properties of the soil and the growth of crops were monitored; and (b) modeling the results of the experimental field for the quantification and correlation of soil ecosystems services. The control treatment used in this field experiment was inorganic fertilization. The simulation was carried out with the 1D-Integrated Critical Zone Model, 1D-ICZ, which has been developed within the framework of the SoilTrEC research project. 1D-ICZ model simulates the changes in biomass and the transformations and accumulation of carbon and nutrients in relation to changes in soil structure, water filtration capacity and biodiversity.The results of the field experiment showed that the agricultural practice of applying organic soil improvers significantly increased the organic matter of the soil, enriching it with the necessary quantities of available nitrogen and phosphorus for the growth of the crop. The application of organic substrates has enhanced the physical structure of the soil both on a monthly and an annual basis. The application of compost significant improved water stable aggregation. In general, compost had a significant effect on soil aggregation and enrichment with soil organic matter, however its incorporation into the soil did not result in complete coverage of the crop with the necessary quantities of N and P. The use of a mixture of compost and manure shows the best results because it combines the positive effect of compost on the soil structure with the beneficial effect of manure that have in microbial population and the availability of nutrients. The simulation of the field data for all treatments was fulfilled with great success. The model was able to represent the biomass production, the dynamics of the formation of water-stable aggregates and the dynamics of carbon and nutrient accumulation in different WSA sizes, as well as the water filtration and the efficiency of transport of substances in the soil solution, in the various treatments. The calibrated simulations finally led to the quantification of key territorial function indicators.The simulations eventually led to the quantification of the key soil functions. Quantification of territorial functions can be used to develop soil sustainability indicators to assess the compensatory benefits between different agro-ecological practices and agricultural land management practices. These indicators could also be incorporated into life cycle assessment methodologies, as in the case of selecting the best urban solid waste management method, as well as for assessing investment projects that concern the production of organic amendments applicable to sustainable agriculture.

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