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Modeling of the groundwater flow of the Apokorona aquifer, Chania – Climate senaria

Papadogiorgaki Margarita

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URI: http://purl.tuc.gr/dl/dias/8174F56F-45E1-46A8-982B-AC56900E1F16
Year 2019
Type of Item Master Thesis
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Summary

This Diploma Thesis describes the simulation of the underground flow in a certain area of Municipality of ​​Apokoronas for the hydrological years 2015-2017 and examines four climate change scenarios. The aim of this thesis is to achieve an accurate simulation of the groundwater flow of the area for a better understanding of the water balance of the aquifers under study, as this area is of considerable economic and especially tourist interest.The ARGUS ONE software in combination with the PTC code (Princeton Transport Code) was applied. The PTC code is a three-dimensional finite element and finite difference groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulator.The study area is located 20 km east of the city of Chania and borders the south with the municipality of Sfakia and east with the Prefecture of Rethymnon. It occupies an area of ​​about 162 km2 and covers a part of the Municipality of Apokoronas, more specifically the villages of Armeni, Plaka, Gavalohori, Vamos, Kefalas, Vrysson, Embrosneros and Alikambos.The first part of the thesis presents general information and governing equations of the groundwater modeling, as well as a quick reference to the climate change and its impact on the groundwater aquifers. It presents the spatial data of the study area, the hydrogeology, the climatic characteristics (precipitation and temperature), and the flora. The model was calibrated using flow data obtained from 20 wells, one rainfall station, the hydraulic conductivity and the porosity of the aquifer. After a detailed calibration of the model the obtained model results have shown a good agreement between simulated and measured values. The final model performance was evaluated using several statistical parameters, such as the RMSE, NSE, RSR and PBIAS.The main conclusion from the simulation is that the White Mountains are the main source of groundwater supplies in the area providing the aquifers with significant amount of water and the underground water supplies to remain at steady state. There are no particularly high groundwater levels and speeds. The subsoil consists mainly of impermeable rocks.

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