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Characterization of bituminous waste from oil refinery

Gianniki Eleni

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Year 2020
Type of Item Diploma Work
Bibliographic Citation Eleni Gianniki, "Characterization of bituminous waste from oil refinery", Diploma Work, School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece, 2020
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Refining crude oil is a complex process that takes place in several stages.During the different processing steps, significant amounts of oily waste aregenerated. One of the major challenges of the modern oil industry is theenvironmentally friendly management of this waste.Bitumen is defined as any natural mixture of solid and semisolid hydrocarbonsthat does not distill under vacuum. The composition of bitumen containsthousands of different chemical compounds, while as a material it appearsblack, sticky and highly viscous. The aforementioned characteristics make thematerial difficult to handle. In additional, bitumen presents a wide variation inboth composition and characteristics depending on the reservoir location fromwhich it originates.Bituminous waste is a product from the refinery processing of crude oil.Regarding the characterization of bituminous waste, it is a particularlysensitive process because the results depend on the sampling technique andthe analytical protocol used in the laboratory. Since the detailedcharacterization of bituminous waste is a complex procedure, usually only itsmain properties are determined.The potential use of bituminous materials and their conversion intomarketable petroleum products depends on both their composition and theapplied technologies for their transformation. Successful utilization of refinerywaste material can reduce the environmental impact of the oil industry and istherefore desirable.The aim of this study is the characterization of a bituminous refinery waste.For this purpose a group of analyzes was conducted in order to estimate thechemical composition of the waste, as well as, its main physical properties.The procedure required the fractionation of the bituminous waste usingdifferent solvents to realize the extractions, as well as the exploitation of thedifferent adsorbing capacity of some adsorbents for each petroleum fraction.In particular volatile solids, metal concentration were determined andelemental analysis was performed. Finally, detailed fractionation of thebituminous waste in hydrocarbons, resins, asphaltenes, carbenes andcarboids and determination of the organic content took place.

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