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Geochemical classification of groundwater and surface water of the regional unit of Chania

Poulou Maria

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Year 2020
Type of Item Master Thesis
Bibliographic Citation Maria Poulou, "Geochemical classification of groundwater and surface water of the regional unit of Chania", Master Thesis, School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece, 2020
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It is a fact that the phenomenon of climate change, which is of great concern to researchers around the world, is affecting water resources and causing a chain reaction in aquatic ecosystems. Specifically in the prefecture of Chania, proper water management is a matter of paramount importance, mainly due to the problem of water scarcity. The present work is a geochemical classification of groundwater and surface water of the regional unit of Chania, which is part of the Directive - Water Framework, 2000/60 / EU and an important part of water resources management. The Regional Unit of Chania, which is our study area, has a population of 156,585 inhabitants and its headquarters are in Chania. The study area covers the western part of the Region of Crete and has a geographical area of ​​about 2,343 square kilometers. The aim of the study is the geochemical classification of groundwater and surface water of the study area, as well as their subsequent evaluation.Chapter 1 provides an introductory reference to water resources and sustainable management. Chapter 2 deals with the basic provisions of both Community and international law. Chapter 3 describes the study area, with reference to geographical, climatic, environmental and socioeconomic data. In Chapter 4, three types of analyzes are performed. Initially, Principal component analysis is performed, both for groundwater and surface water sources, in order to group the variables that affect the quality classification of water. Then a geochemical analysis is done through a piper diagram in order to classify the waters. These analyzes were performed on chemical and biological variables, the measurements of which belong to the Region of Crete and their analysis at the Technical University of Crete. Finally, a DPSIR analysis is performed, in parallel with the classification and evaluation of water quality.The results of the piper diagrams showed that the samples examined in this study appear both in the case of surface water and in that of groundwater at the top and bottom of the rhomboid section of the diagram. They are therefore characterized as calcium sulphate waters, indicating the existence of permanent hardness and acidic carbonates of the sodium, indicating the presence in the water of alkaline carbon salts. PCA analyzes led to the creation of 4, 5 and 6 new components. Comparing the results of the three analyzes for surface and groundwater sources, it is observed that with the increase of the extracted components the percentage of variation of the initial variables explained by the factors increases (73.39% vs. 80.55% vs. 85.59%) and (71.76% vs. 77.37% vs. 82.63%) respectively. In addition, changes were observed in the content of the components, with the most obvious being pH, P-PO43- (mg / l), N-NO3- (mg / L) and Phenols (ppm) in the case of superficial sources and the elements P-PO43- (mg / l), Zn (ppb), Phenols (ppm), Hardness (mg / l), pH, COD (mg / l) in the second case, which were classified in different components , and then included in either one component or two. Finally, it is observed that the use of average price of the data in the samplings (compared to the results of the annex) gave better results as the rate of variation explained by the factors increased (72.93% vs. 73.39% vs. 80.55% vs. 85.59). %) and (70.01% vs. 71.76% vs. 77.37% vs. 82.63%) respectively. Regarding water evaluation, the DPSIR analysis showed that the existing water quality is good. The work concludes with a review and commentary on the information presented.

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