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Geological and hydrochemical research of the historical thermal and thermometallic springs of the Phyllite Nappe in Western Crete

Boutsakis Konstantinos

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Year 2021
Type of Item Master Thesis
Bibliographic Citation Konstantinos Boutsakis, "Geological and hydrochemical research of the historical thermal and thermometallic springs of the Phyllite Nappe in Western Crete", Master Thesis, School of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece, 2021
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This research analyzes the geological conditions for the creation of thermal and thermo-metallic springs in the tectonic cover of Phillite Quartzite serie in Western Crete and the relationship between springs' and aquifer's chemistry.Groundwater move in the Phyllite formation, through rockmass joints, as well as the residence time inside the aquifer and the dissolution of the rock, mold the chemistry of the springs.Specifically, the results of previous surveys in the areas of Kallikratis (Ksinonero Spring), Vothiana (Arelio Spring), Strovles, Moustakos, Temenia, Arolithi, Kapediana and Anisaraki in Western Crete, are being processed.The results of water samples' chemical analysis from the springs were investigated and compared in terms of their content of major anions and cations through hydrochemical diagrams and their physicochemical characteristics.Ksinonero acid spring has pH= 2,8 - 3,2 in contrast all the other oligometallic springs with TDS< 155 mg/L. The content in sulfides in the water samples is between 0,01 mg/L and 121,99 mg/L. Also water temperature can be defined from cold to hypotherm "K-Na-Cl-S". In conclusion, the relatively high ammonia (NH4) found in all sources may be an indicator of biological type of pollution. The two extreme characteristics of the waters flowing from specific springs in the Phyllite Nappe are the low value of TDS (≤200mg/L), therefore they are characterized as oligometallic and the acidic pH of the source Xinonero. The reduction of mixed sulfides is the reason that the water of the Xinonero spring is acidic. From this reduction the ferrous iron (Fe2+) is converted to feric iron (Fe3+) and deposited, as a result of the formation of iron deposits in the area.

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