Institutional Repository
Technical University of Crete
EN  |  EL



My Space

Formation of the typology for the evaluation of the sustainability of nearly zero energy ports

Sifakis Nikolaos

Full record

Year 2021
Type of Item Doctoral Dissertation
Bibliographic Citation Nikolaos Sifakis, "Formation of the typology for the evaluation of the sustainability of nearly zero energy ports", Doctoral Dissertation, School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece, 2021
Appears in Collections


Ports serve as crucial hubs for transporting materials, passengers, cars, and cargo, making them high-energy consumers that rely primarily on fossil fuels. Accordingly, they are an important source of air pollution, particularly in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change mitigation is turning out to be a top priority for ports, which work to increase their energy efficiency and diminish their carbon footprint. The increasing progress toward more sustainable infrastructures has drawn the attention of port management authorities to energy issues. As a result, ports are taking advantage of smart energy management systems, renewable energy systems, and energy storage systems to incorporate sustainability and enhance the efficiency of their operations.This thesis attempts to fill the research gaps on port-related sustainability by creating a solid and reliable typology that consists of the following:• A comprehensive literature study is done to improve understanding of port sustainability and provide a foundation of information about existing technologies and methodologies;• Several machine learning models/tools were used to forecast the ports' energy profile for 2030, highlighting the need to improve the existing status of the ports in terms of energy;• A Smart Outdoor Lighting Control System was created for optimal control of the lighting output of the new luminaires based on the illuminance of the sun and the space occupancy of each port, including a non-invasive Smart Energy Management Systems into port activities;• Several Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for each port case are conceptualised, simulated, discussed, compared, and evaluated to pick the optimal among them by satisfying the three sustainability criteria;• Cold-ironing technology is being integrated and tested to reduce emissions from berthing ships according to the most recent European Union laws. Simultaneously, the feasibility of including a hydrogen storage system is assessed in terms of autonomy and reducing the port's Green House Gas emissions.• Finally, an applied evaluation framework is created to give insights into the design, size, and control of a Hybrid Renewable Energy System in seaports, guaranteeing operational stability and safety.Concluding, the nearly Zero Energy Port concept promotes an attractive infrastructure that uses almost explicitly green energy resulting in a zero-carbon footprint and providing a crucial contribution to climate change mitigation. The circular economy will benefit from the energy shift from fossil-fuel energy producers to Renewable Energy Systems, which will improve cohabitation between ports and port towns. A cleaner future for the mobility sector is imminent through the nearly Zero Energy Port concept, which Smart Energy Management Systems like the proposed one strengthens. Indicatively the proposed Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems, in cooperation with the suggested Smart Energy Management Systems operation, achieve almost zero emissions, leading to an economically feasible investment towards sustainability, concurrently enhancing the port's services safety-of-supply through the 24-h autonomy. The necessity of ports' transformation into innovative and energy-efficient infrastructures has been highlighted, indicating their critical role in global climate change.

Available Files