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Research of the quantitative and qualitative status of groundwater in the Malia region (N.Herakliou) with analysis and correlation of historical data

Angelopoulou Artemis

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Year 2021
Type of Item Diploma Work
Bibliographic Citation Artemis Angelopoulou, "Research of the quantitative and qualitative status of groundwater in the Malia region (N.Herakliou) with analysis and correlation of historical data", Diploma Work, School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece, 2021
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The increased demand for water has led to the overexploitation of underground water potential. In Mediterranean countries, where the climate is characterized by low rainfall heights, crop growth and irrigation are based almost exclusively on groundwater. Due to the short duration of rainfall, the period of pumping from the underground aquifer is long (more than 6 months) and the pumping rate is uncontrolled and not rational, with consequences both environmental and economic.This thesis aims to investigate the quantitative and qualitative status of groundwater in the prefecture of Heraklion, specifically in the area of Malia, by analyzing and correlating historical hydrological and chemical data. The drilling and construction of the water pipeline in the city of Heraklion began in 1959 and was completed in 1963. The data was recorded between 1986 and 2005. A total of 7 variables (pH, conductivity, hardness, water level, chlorides, nitrates and sulfates) were recorded in 11 observation wells.First, due to increased salinization presence in the area, the correlation between chloride-conductivity, sulfate - ion-conductivity and hardness-conductivity was investigated. Then, with the SEM analysis, the standard regression coefficients were identified and the determination coefficient (R2) was found showing the percentage of variation for each dependent variable, explained by the statistically significant independent variables, level and precipitation. The method was confirmed, with the development of an easy-to-use algorithm, which contributed to the correlation control between the cumulative rainfall and the variable being studied; the results were recorded through the mathematical software "Matlab R2021a".The results confirmed the existence of brackish water in the area, with the concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions showing a strong correlation with conductivity. Precipitation significantly affects surface nitrate loads and contributes to increasing their concentration in the underground aquifer. The three parameters related to brackish water (chlorides, hardness and conductivity), as expected, are affected to a small extent by precipitation.

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