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Modelling groundwater flow and mass transport in the area of Chersonisos-Heraklion using updated information

Voutsina Gavriella-Foteini

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Year 2022
Type of Item Diploma Work
Bibliographic Citation Gavriella-Foteini Voutsina, "Modelling groundwater flow and mass transport in the area of Chersonisos-Heraklion using updated information", Diploma Work, School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece, 2022
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The present diploma thesis aimed at modeling the aquifer of the Ηersonissos region, in the prefecture of Heraklion, Crete, as well as modeling mass transfer from the Landfill for the hydrological years 2011-2021.The simulation of groundwater flow as well as groundwater pollutants for the above hydrological years was achieved using the Princeton Transport Code (PTC) model. The PTC is a hybrid three-dimensional model of finite elements and finite differences. ArcGIS software was also used to display, prepare and import the data into the model. The use of the PTC resulted in a better understanding of the volume of inputs and run-off from the underground aquifers and the prediction of diffusion of the pollutant in a possible future leakage of the leachate of the landfill.The studied area is located 26 km east of the city of Heraklion, Crete, and borders to the east with the prefecture of Lassithi, to the south with the municipalities of Minoa-Pediados and Archanes-Asterousia and to the west with the municipality of Heraklion. It occupies an area of about 272 km2 and its population is 26,717 inhabitants. Hersonissos is eminently touristic, with significant economic activity.The first part of the work initially presents general information concerning the movement of groundwater through fundamental equations, the hydraulic elements of aquifers and the salinization of water. Then, a detailed description of the studied area is made and data on the location, climate, flora, fauna and hydrogeology are presented. Then, a description of the underground PTC model is given, where the mathematical considerations of the underground flow, the detachment of the system equations, the groundwater flow simulation models and the simulation of the insatiable zone are analyzed in individual chapters. In the second part of the work, the results of the analysis are presented in the form of graphs with the help of the PTC modeling software. By introducing the necessary elements into the model, the aquifer, the mass balance calculation reports, as well as the groundwater speeds were simulated.The conclusion that emerged from this study is that there are no significant changes in the groundwater supplies in the region of Hersonisos Heraklion between the wet, winter periods, since the observed differences can be explained by the differential annual rainfall heights. On the contrary, these differences are significant between winter and summer. As far as the diffusion of polluting substances and their concentrations from the landfill is concerned, the results are not particularly encouraging, since, according to the present analysis (model), pollution spreads over time and concentrations increase. Finally, the flow rates of groundwater were found to be generally low, with the exception of two specific areas where the movement of groundwater intensifies. From the above findings it becomes obvious that the PTC modeling software has the ability to effectively simulate the movement of the underground aquifer and describe the transport of pollutants.

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