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Hybrid renewable energy system optimum design and smart dispatch for nearly Zero Energy Ports

Sifakis Nikolaos, Konidakis Stefanos, Tsoutsos Theocharis

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Year 2021
Type of Item Peer-Reviewed Journal Publication
Bibliographic Citation N. Sifakis, S. Konidakis, and T. Tsoutsos, “Hybrid renewable energy system optimum design and smart dispatch for nearly Zero Energy Ports,” J. Cleaner Prod., vol. 310, Aug. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127397.
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Climate change mitigation has become a ports' emergency; they endeavour to improve their energy efficiency and diminish their carbon footprint. The optimisation analysis of a seaport grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system is presented, comparing the impact of two dispatch strategies and three energy storage systems. Seventeen scenarios have been examined regarding the possible combinations of the most mature renewable and energy storage systems according to the Levelised Cost of Energy, environmental footprint, and future employability. Vanadium Redox Flow Battery based Hybrid Renewable Energy System employed offering 10-h port services' autonomy. For the grid-connected net metering and 24-h port autonomy, the optimal Levelised Cost of Energy is 12.9 c€/kWh. The overall optimum was 8.0 c€/kWh, incorporating 10-h port services' autonomy. All the alternative cases proved much lower of the Levelised Cost of Energy could be much lower than the current grid's tariff. Peak shaving strategy is proven to be more efficient for seaports than cycle charging, resulting in improved energy management and lower energy billing costs by setting peak monthly demand limits. The emissions are diminished to zero, as the net grid purchases are zero, incorporating totally green infrastructure. The nearly Zero Energy Port concept proved to be a viable and feasible solution for ports towards sustainability.