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A roadmap towards intelligent net zero- and positive-energy buildings

Kolokotsa Dionysia, Rovas Dimitrios, Kosmatopoulos Ilias, Kalaitzakis Kostas

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Year 2011
Type of Item Peer-Reviewed Journal Publication
Bibliographic Citation D. Kolokotsa, D. Rovas, E. Kosmatopoulos, and K. Kalaitzakis, "A roadmap towards intelligent net zero- and positive-energy buildings," Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 3067–3084, Dec. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2010.09.001
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Buildings nowadays are increasingly expected to meet higher and more complex performance requirements: they should be sustainable; use zero-net energy; foster a healthy and comfortable environment for the occupants; be grid-friendly, yet economical to build and maintain. The essential ingredients for the successful development and operation of net zero- and positive-energy buildings (NZEB/PEB) are: thermal simulation models, that are accurate representations of the building and its subsystems; sensors, actuators, and user interfaces to facilitate communication between the physical and simulation layers; and finally, integrated control and optimization tools of sufficient generality that using the sensor inputs and the thermal models can take intelligent decisions, in almost real-time, regarding the operation of the building and its subsystems. To this end the aim of the present paper is to present a review on the technological developments in each of the essential ingredients that may support the future integration of successful NZEB/PEB, i.e. accurate simulation models, sensors and actuators and last but not least the building optimization and control. The integration of the user is an integral part in the dynamic behavior of the system, and this role has to be taken into account. Future prospects and research trends are discussed.