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A simulation study for long-range underwater acoustic networks in the High North

Pelekanakis Konstantinos, Petroccia Roberto, Fountzoulas Ioannis, Green Dale, Fioravanti Stefano, Alves João, Blouin Stéphane, Pecknold, S. P

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Year 2019
Type of Item Peer-Reviewed Journal Publication
Bibliographic Citation K. Pelekanakis, R. Petroccia, Y. Fountzoulas, D. Green, S. Fioravanti, J. Alves, S. Blouin and S. Pecknold, "A Simulation Study for Long-Range Underwater Acoustic Networks in the High North," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 850-864, Oct. 2019. doi: 10.1109/JOE.2019.2931853
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In stark contrast to a typical underwater acoustic network (UAN) deployed in mid-latitudes, ice-covered environments make network deployment difficult and expensive. A limited number of nodes must cover ranges of hundreds of kilometers. We tackle the network design in three layers: engineering, physical, and networking. At the engineering layer, we investigate hardware and bandwidth limitations for real-world implementation. Based on the proposed bandwidth, we design a software modem equipped with three waveforms achieving 1.8, 21.4, and 96.2 b/s. The packet error rate performance is computed with a channel simulator that takes realistic environmental parameters. Our simulations show that ranges of more than 100 km can be achieved in two High North areas during summer months provided that the point-to-point links exploit the ducted sound propagation. However, during winter months, this performance may not be always possible and multiple hops may be needed to cover the same range. Finally, based on the outcomes of the physical layer, an adaptive cross-layer routing protocol, termed network-aware adaptive routing (NADIR), is simulated. Link quality, energy consumption, and topological data are used to select the best coded modulation scheme and relay node in the next transmission slot. Our results show that the use of an adaptive strategy offers higher packet delivery and lower energy consumption than a nonadaptive strategy.